PENGELOLAAN PROGRAM HUTAN KEMASYARAKATAN BERBASIS KEARIFAN LOKAL : Studi Kasus Di Kawasan Hutan Lindung Sesaot Lombok Barat

Mukhtar - -, Soemarno - -, Kliwon - Hidayat

Abstract


ABSTRAK

 

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk (1) memahami makna program HKm oleh masyarakat; (2) Memahami penerapan Awig-awig mengenai program HKm dan (3) memahami penerapan program HKm. Beberapa teori yang digunakan dalam menganalisa temuan penelitian antara lain teori ekologi manusia dan teori interaksional simbolik.

Metode penelitian menggunakan rancangan kualitatif dengan pendekatan studi kasus.  Sumber data atau informan adalah masyarakat yang tinggal di sekitar kawasan hutan yang termasuk penggarap program HKm dan penggarap HKm non program, juga orang dari luar kawasan hutan yang dianggap relevan. Penentuan informan dilakukan dengan metode snowball sampling dan purposive. Pengumpulan data dilakukan melalui pengamatan, wawancara mendalam, studi dokumentasi dan triangulasi. Sedangkan analisa data dilakukan melalui analisa deskriptif menggunakan model Miles dan Huberman. Pengujian keabsahan data dan informasi, dilakukan dengan metode triangulasi dan pemeriksaan sejawat melalui diskusi.

Hasil penelitian; Pertama, makna program HKm oleh masyarakat dipahami sebagai kesempatan untuk memperoleh hak kelola lahan di dalam kawasan hutan untuk kegiatan usaha tani. Akibatnya masyarakat cenderung berprilaku eksploitatif untuk memaksimalkan manfaat ekonomi lahan. Dalam kaitannya dengan fungsi konservasi, terjadi perbedaan pemahaman antara masyarakat dengan Dinas Kehutanan. Masyarakat memaknai konservasi dari keseluruhan vegetasi sebagai kesatuan fungsi ekonomi dan konservasi, sehingga pemanfaatan lahan lebih didominasi oleh tanaman MPTS. Dinas Kehutanan memaknai tanaman pohon untuk pengintegrasian fungsi konservasi guna mendukung manfaat ekonomi. Ke dua, Revitalisasi nilai Awig-awig sebagai aturan pelaksanaan program HKm masih dipandang sebagai simbolisasi nilai lokal. Dalam implementasinya belum efektif untuk mendukung pengintegrasian fungsi konservasi  dan fungsi ekonomi sesuai dengan tujuan program HKm. Dari 12 muatan aturan dalam Awig-awig kawasan, hanya tiga muatan aturan yang dijalankan dan sembilan muatan aturan belum efektif berjalan. Pelanggaran Awig-awig yang sulit ditangani terdiri dari sindikat pencurian kayu, perilaku perambahan hutan, praktek ganti rugi lahan dan penegakan komposisi tanam.  Ke tiga, Penerapan program HKm oleh masyarakat belum efektif mendukung pelestarian sumberdaya hutan secara berkelanjutan. Penerapan yang dilakukan masih sebatas pada pelestarian jangka pendek. Hal itu disebabkan karena masyarakat lebih berorientasi pada pemenuhan keinginan, bukan semata-mata untuk memenuhi kebutuhan hidupnya.

Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, dirumuskan saran akademis yakni pentingnya kajian lebih lanjut dari beberapa sudut pandang antara lain (i) kesesuaian luas lahan terhadap kecukupan ekonomi rumah tangga; (ii) Kesesuaian pola tanam untuk mendukung integrasi fungsi konservasi dengan fungsi ekonomi, (iii) perumusan model penguatan kelembagaan masyarakat berbasis nilai-nilai kearifan lokal dan pengetahuan ekologi lokal.

Saran praktis, yakni (1) aspek tata kelola kawasan; diperlukan inventarisasi ulang tata batas kawasan, mendorong percepatan pemberian izin resmi kepada masyarakat dan melakukan rekonstruksi ulang kawasan yang ditetapkan sebagai lahan kelola HKm; (2) aspek tata kelola usaha; diperlukan intervensi program pengembangan usaha produktif melalui penguatan peran perempuan serta menggeser intensifikasi produksi di dalam kawasan hutan ke intensifikasi produksi di luar kawasan hutan dan (3) aspek tata kelola kelembagaan; untuk kelembagaan masyarakat diperlukan program penguatan kapasitas dan dukungan program untuk penguatan Awig-awig. Bagi kelembagaan pemerintah diperlukan komitmen terutama aparat-aparat yang di lapangan untuk melakukan penegakan hukum secara adil dan tidak bermain ganda  serta dukungan pengakuan formal terhadap Forum Kawasan

Kata kunci: hutan kemasyarakatan, kearifan likal, awig-awig

ABSTRACT

The research was aimed to: (1) evaluate  comprehensively on the  understanding of the local community on the Community Forest Programme (2) establish better understanding of Awig-Awig on Community Forest Management and (3) have better understanding of the Community Forest Programme implementation.  Some theories have been used to analyse the research including: human ecology theory and Symbolic interactional theory.

The methods of the research was a qualitative design using a case study.  The responden or key informans were people who living accros the area  both as farmer being involved in the programm and  non-programme farmers as well as particular  people who has better understanding on the community forest programme. The informans were determined using a snowball sampling dan purposive method.  Data collecting was conducted by a direct observation, in-deepth interview, documentation and triangulation study.  Data analysis was done with deskriptive analyse using Miles and Huberman Models. The data and information validation was tested using triangulation method and personal confirmation via deep discussion.

Results of research: First, the Community forest programm according to local farmers was`transleted as a chance to have land holding in the forest area  to be farming system.  As a results, the people tend to behave exsploitatively and economically  in maximizing the land use. In relation to conservation function, there were a discripancy understanding between community groups and Forest Institution. The conservation according to the local community was transleted from entire vegetation as economic objective, so, the use of land was dominated by the Multy Purposes Trees Species (MPTS) while based on the forest institution , the tree has to be  integrated to the conservation function to support economic value.  Second, The revitalisation of Awig-awig as the local convention of implementing the community forest programme is thought to be just a symbol of local value. Thus, the local wisdom was not effective to support the integration of conservation and economic objectives of such programme.   From 12 points of convention as written on the Awig-Awig manuscript of Area Managmenen, the were only three  point which have been accomodated effectively  by the community while the rest of nine points  were not obeyed. In other words, the people tend to break the convention on the Awig-Awig. It is important to note that the convention based on Awig-Awig which were very difficult to be solved including:  illegal lodgging sindicate, slash and burning the land, illegal property, and convention relate to vegetation composition of the land.  Third, The implementation of the community forest programme has not been effective to suport sustainable forest management. The management of the programm seems to be a short term target rather than long therm target. This is more likely due to the willingness orientation of the local community rather than to meet their daily needs.

Based on the results, the academic recommendation proposed for the future research are : (i) land suitability in relation to meet the sufficiency of farmers income (ii) The appropriate vegetation composition should be applied on the agroforestry system to support ecology and economic functions of the forest. (iii) Establish a strengthern model of community institution on the basisi of local wisdom and local ecological knowledge.  Practical recommendation (1) Zone management aspect:  reinventarisation areal zone ,speed up a formal permits to community and reconstruction of  the community forest area (2) Interpreneurships management; intervention programm on productive interpreneuirships; development programme on productive interpreneurships through sthrengthern of women role  and change intensification system from forest area to close nearby or outside the area (3) institution managemen:  for community institution, the spesific programme to sthrengthern building capacity of Awig-Awig is needed. A good government including policy commitment in particular  for filed staff supervision to  work based on law inforcement is indespensible.

Keywords: community forest management, local wisdom


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