IMPLEMENTASI KEBIJAKAN PEMBANGUNAN PETERNAKAN (Studi Kasus Tentang Gerbang Anak Desa di Desa Sumingkir dan Desa Limbangan Kabupaten Dati II Purbalingga)

Alizar - Isna, Sumartono - -, Ismani HP - -

Abstract


ABSTRAK

 

Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk  mendeskripsikan dan menjawab pertanyaan penelitian: mengapa pola pengembangan ternak yang dilakukan oleh masyarakat suatu desa dapat berkembang ? bagaimana proses pola pengembangan usaha ternak yang dilakukan oleh masyarakat tersebut menjadi kebijakan Gerbang Anak Desa ? mengapa pelaksanaan Gerbang Anak Desa di desa tertentu masih dapat berjalan, sementara di desa lain sudah tidak berjalan lagi (tidak berhasil) ?  bagaimana prospek Gerbang Anak Desa sekiranya dilaksanakan di desa-desa lainnya di seluruh kabupaten ? dan apakah Gerbang Anak Desa dapat dijadikan sebagai model alternatif pengentasan kemiskinan ?

Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif dengan bentuk studi kasus. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan menggunakan tehnik wawancara mendalam, observasi, dan dokumentasi. Lokasi penelitian dipilih Desa Sumingkir dan Limbangan kabupaten Dati II Purbalingga. Analisis data dilakukan dengan menggunakan analisis seperti yang dikembangkan oleh Strauss dan Corbin, yakni dengan melalui prosedur open coding, axial coding dan selective coding. Untuk menetapkan keabsahan data, digunakan tehnik pemeriksaan yang didasarkan atas kriteria derajat kepercayaan, keteralihan, kebergantungan, dan kepastian.

Hasil penelitian menunjukkan pola pengembangan usaha ternak yang dirintis oleh masyarakat dapat berkembang karena didorong oleh motivasi individual dan keterbukaan masyarakat untuk menerima gagasan-gagasan baru yang datang dari luar. Keberhasilan penyebaran pola pengembangan ayam buras petelur di daerah lain, dipengaruhi oleh keberhasilan pengembangan pola tersebut pada masyarakat perintis. Proses perumusan kebijakan Gerbang Anak Desa bukan merupakan respon dari adanya permasalahan  yang ada dalam masyarakat, namun lebih diwarnai oleh kepentingan pemerintah daerah, dan proses perumusannya yang didominasi oleh pemerintah daerah. Pelaksanaan "Gerbang Anak Desa" yang dapat berjalan dengan baik karena program tersebut berasal dan didukung oleh motivasi dari dalam masyarakat sendiri. Kegagalan implementasi Gerbang Anak Desa di daerah lain, disebabkan program tersebut berasal dan "dipaksakan" oleh aparat serta kurangnya motivasi dari dalam masyarakat sendiri.

Prospek keberhasilan implementasi Gerbang Anak Desa yang sekaligus sebagai alternatif model pengentasan kemiskinan akan sulit terwujud karena  tidak didukung oleh : sumberdaya keuangan, kesiapan aparat pelaksana, kepastian lokasi kawasan, kemampuan sumberdaya manusianya, kepastian keamanan lokasi kawasan, serta kecenderungan pelaksanaannya yang menggunakan pendekatan kekuasaan, lebih bersifat top down, dan tidak menciptakan kemandirian kelompok.

 

Kata kunci: Gerbang anak desa, peternakan

 

ABSTRACT

 

The research dealing with the implementation of animal husbandry development policy is initiated from "the success" of livestock improvement pattern established by the people of Sumingkir Village, which is then developed and decided the Local Government Purbalingga as Gerbang Anak Desa policy, i.e the policy of animal husbandry development and the effort to improve breeders' prosperity in Purbalingga Regency. Before Gerbang Anak Desa policy was implemented in Purbalingga Regency entirely, it was implemented in two pilot villages. Such policy works and "survives" up to now in one ofthe pilot villages, while in another pilot village, it only worked for a year. Although the implementation of Gerbang Anak Desa in on of the pilot villages failed, it does not reduce the enthusiasm of the Local Government to insist on implementing the policy in all Purbalingga Regencies. With regards to "the success" and the failure of the policy implementation, it must be interesting to study : why is a livestock improvement  pattern performed by the people of a village able to develop ? how does the process of livestock improvement pattern performed by such people become Gerbang Anak Desa policy ? why is the implementation of Gerbang Anak Desa in a certain village able to work, meanwhile in another village, it did not work anymore (failed) ? how is the prospect of Gerbang Anak Desa if it is implemented in other villages of the entire regencies ? and whether Gerbang Anak Desa may be used as alternative model of poverty alleviation. While the purpose of this research is to describe  and to provide the answers to the research               questions above.

This research applied qualitative approach in the form of case study. The data collection was conducted with intensive interview technique, observation, and documentation. The location of research is Sumingkir and Limbangan Villages Purbalingga Regency. The data analysis was conducted by applying the analysis developed by Strauss and Corbin, namely by open coding, axial coding, and selective coding procedures. To determine the validity of the data, the examination technique was applied based on the criteria of credibility, transferability, dependability, and conformability.

The result of the study indicated that the livestock improvement established by the people stated above may grow because of the support of individual motivation and people's openness to obtain external new ideas. The success in distributing domestic chicken improvement pattern to other areas is influenced by the success of such improvement pattern among pioneer people. The formulation process of Gerbang Anak Desa policy is not a respond of the problems existing among society, however it tends to be the interest of the local government, and its formulation  process  is dominated by local government. The implementation of Gerbang Anak Desa which runs well resulted from the fact that the program came from and supported by the motivation of the people themselves. The failure in implementing Gerbang Anak Desa in another area was caused by the fact that the program came from and "being forced" by the governmental agency, as well as the lack of motivation from the people themselves.

The prospect of the success in implementing Gerbang Anak Desa and at the same time the passibility to make it as alternative model of poverty alleviation will be difficult to be realized, since it is not supported by: finacial resources, the readiness of human resources, the certainty  of the location, the ability of the human resources, the security of the location ; as well as  the  tendency of the implementation which is more authority approach, top-down style, and does not create group autonomy.

 

Keywords: animal husbandry, policy


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